North American Ordination (2017 Only)

Dear Dharma Teachers, Dear Order Members, Dear Aspirants,

In 2017 there will be three opportunities for aspirants from North America to be ordained into the Order of Interbeing. In order to facilitate the process, the Care-Taking Council of the Dharma Teachers Sangha of North America (including both monastics and lay Dharma Teachers) have clarified the requirements, criteria, and procedures for North American students of Thich Nhat Hanh.

The Fourteen Mindfulness Trainings offer clear guidance for living simply, compassionately, and joyfully in our modern world. They are a concrete embodiment of the teachings of the Buddha and the Bodhisattva ideal. Anyone who wishes can live his or her life in accord with these fourteen trainings.

To formally join the Order of Interbeing means to publicly commit oneself to studying, practicing, and observing the trainings and, also, to participating actively in a community which practices mindfulness in the Plum Village tradition of Thich Nhat Hanh.

Continue reading “North American Ordination (2017 Only)”

A Letter of Support

In light of hearing from so many who are struggling amid these times of political changes, I felt called to offer this letter, of which I hope will offer some support and benefit.

Dear friends along the path,

I know you suffer, and I am here for you.

I see that your anger and fear are rooted in a fierce compassion for others and out of a strong desire to do what you feel and know is right. As a mindfulness practitioner, the question is not whether or not to be angry, it’s about how we utilize our anger to influence our thoughts, speech, and actions. Is our anger motivating us to become more informed and involved with an open heart and sense of connection and compassion, or with an un-grounded, frantic sense of heaviness and despair? What seeds are we sowing in our wake?

Do you feel as though anger is not only an appropriate response but a necessary one, in order to affect change? I remember feeling this way when I was in my early 20’s. It took me a long while to reconcile my mindfulness practice with my deep-rooted feelings of anger, related to those I felt were responsible for both large and small acts of environmental degradation. Without anger, I queried, wouldn’t I then become complacent and ineffectual? Wasn’t anger a crucial motivator? As my foundation of mindfulness was being built and strengthened, I came to understand that the answer, to both questions, was: no.

There resides a middle path to follow. One that allows us to become involved with matters of injustice, human rights, and environmental advocacy work (just to name a few) while also choosing not to carry around and spread the heavy burden of anger everywhere we go. May our anger and upset start us on the path of active engagement with the world around us, and may we then learn how to transform that anger into mindfulness, concentration, and insight, so that our speech and actions will cause as little harm as possible as we move forward.

Anger isn’t necessarily a bad thing. However, if we’re not careful and attentive, it can easily overtake and overwhelm our lives, causing us to become embittered, cynical, miserable, difficult to be around, and mentally, emotionally, and physically exhausted. If we allow our seeds of anger to be nurtured, we will create a very hostile and unpleasant atmosphere within and around us.

Feel your anger, dear friends, experience it as it arises, without judgement or suppression – I would not suggest otherwise. But don’t stop there. Investigate it. Become inquisitive. Understand your internal landscape, so that your actions that carry forth will be well informed. Do not allow your anger to go unchecked. Do not allow your seeds of love, ease, equanimity, inclusiveness, and interconnection to go un-watered. The well-being of our family, community, country, society, and the world depends on our ability to embody and practice the tools that mindfulness affords us, especially in the midst of change, challenge, struggle, adversity, and fear.

With Love and Support,

Nicole Dunn
True Wonderful Flower
Be Here Now Sangha
Missoula, Montana

The Creative Tension Between Fostering Dialogue and Social Justice

I teach sociology and global studies at the college level, which means that thorny social issues regularly come up in my classroom. As part of observing the Fourteen Mindfulness Trainings in the classroom, I try both to foster dialogue between students of different worldviews, encouraging them to understand and respect each other, and also to create a classroom that cultivates social justice, particularly in giving those who belong to oppressed and normally silenced groups room to speak. But in mindfully observing the dynamics of the classroom, I have realized that there is a tension between these two goals, making it difficult at times to achieve both. If, in the name of open dialogue, we give too much room to speak to those who normally dominate the public conversation on social issues, they can silence those who are oppressed and marginalized. Sometimes I have found it necessary to intervene in classroom conversations in a way that cuts off a certain line of argument in order to create a space for where students from oppressed groups feel safe expressing themselves. The trick is doing so in a way that doesn’t permanently shut down students with worldviews reflecting the dominant belief systems and the experiences of the dominant social groups.

One time a student was talking about the case of a female college student who had been raped and filed charges against her attacker through the school’s disciplinary system. Rather than her attacker being disciplined, she herself was punished by the college. Another, male student expressed disbelief and asked if this wasn’t a case of the woman filing false rape charges. I think the male student’s response was honestly rooted in disbelief that such an obvious injustice could take place; I did not get a dismissive, misogynistic vibe when he spoke, then or at other points in class. But this could too easily have degenerated into a conversation about how prevalent false rape claims are and the repetition of myths promoted by misogynistic, so-called “men’s rights” groups that most reports of rape are false. This in turn would have created a classroom atmosphere that was unpleasant for women, especially any who had experienced sexual assault, something that is all too common. So I rapidly intervened and noted that, while false rape reports did happen, they were very rare and that it was more common for women simply not to report sexual assault at all, redirecting the conversation.

Another time, we were discussing Trump’s election campaign and the attacks he had been making against groups like immigrants and Muslims and one white student said she felt like the media had misrepresented his positions and unfairly villainized him. An LGBT student demanded to know if she was dismissing the fears of people like him, as well as immigrant and Latino students. Again, I intervened, this time before the Trump sympathizer could say something unintentionally insensitive and explosive. I stressed that people from different social backgrounds with different life experiences would have much different perspectives on issues like this and that her experience as a white person meant she wouldn’t see something the same way a (for instance) Latino immigrant would.

In both cases, I acted to shut down a line of discussion, seeking to redirect the conversation elsewhere–doing so more instinctively than anything else, since the situation did not allow time for mindful reflection before speaking. In both cases, looking back, I think shutting down the line of discussion in question was the right thing to do, because allowing it to roll forward could have created a hostile classroom atmosphere where students belonging to oppressed and marginalized groups felt silenced. As it was, I appeared to have done so skillfully enough that the students who I was cutting off did not feel silenced either, since they continued to speak up in class. But these incidents drove home to me the fact that there can be tensions between fostering dialogue and social justice.

This is hardly a challenge limited to the classroom. In talking with other practitioners in the Plum Village tradition, I have noticed a real difference between those who emphasize a path to a better world through dialogue and those who advocate a path through nonviolent but more confrontational social justice activism. And it’s a tension in the larger world of social justice activism and peace-building. A Jewish friend of mind who is involved in peace activism in Israel and Palestine, including efforts to promote dialogue between Israelis and Palestinians, has told me that many Palestinians have what she considers legitimate objections to engaging in dialogue at this historical juncture. While they do not oppose dialogue in principle, they oppose doing so now, while the Israeli occupation of Palestine is ongoing. They would, however, be interested in engaging in dialogue once the occupation is ended and some degree of equality has been achieved. But it’s difficult to have a meaningful dialogue when one party has their boot on the other’s neck, holding them down and silencing them. In his “Letter from Birmingham City Jail,” Martin Luther King, Jr. describes how civil rights activists had tried engaging in dialogue with the business leaders of Birmingham to end segregation in city businesses, but these dialogues continually failed because the business leaders were personally committed to segregation, fearful of the negative impact ending the practice would have on their businesses, and unwilling to engage in dialogue in good faith, making promises they would then renege on. King notes that Birmingham’s business leaders only began to engage in meaningful dialogue leading to social change once civil rights activists had begun engaging in more confrontational actions, such as boycotts and protests that shut the entire city down, turning public spaces into chaotic battle zones between nonviolent protesters and attacking police. According to my Jewish peace activist friend, many Palestinians have been similarly dissatisfied with their experiences in engaging in dialogue with Israelis. In many cases, they feel like they achieved real understanding–but after the end of the dialogue, many Israelis would take no further steps to help the Palestinians end the occupation. As far as the Palestinians could tell, the dialogue had helped the Israelis salve their conscience, but without taking meaningful action. Dialogue is not always meaningful or fruitful, if the larger social causes and conditions are not right.

How then do we mindfully handle the tension between dialogue and fighting for social justice? In my classroom, I seek to decenter the experiences of those from privileged backgrounds, while making the experiences of those who are oppressed the center of discussion and inquiry. Decentering the experiences of the privileged doesn’t mean dismissing them or ignoring them, but instead not making them the focus of attention, as they so often are in mainstream political discourse. Instead, we concentrate on the experiences of members of oppressed and marginalized groups, trying to understand the social causes and conditions that foster their oppression and what that means for people’s lived experience. This creates room for members of these oppressed groups in my classroom to speak up–for African-Americans, for instance, to talk about being harassed as possible shop lifters by store employees when they are simply trying to shop or students who are undocumented immigrants to speak of their fears of deportation. It gives privileged students a chance to listen and begin to understand the experiences of others belonging to social groups from who they may have heard little from in the past. And these privileged students can join in the conversation as well. I am not silencing them, but I am also moving the class discussion away from focusing on them. I hope by doing this I can create a space of genuine dialogue that also fosters conditions of social justice.

What we should bare in mind here is the goal of our practice as engaged Buddhists. Neither dialogue nor activism are ends in themselves–instead, we are seeking to deepen our ability to cultivate understanding of others and to find skillful means for putting compassion into action and making the world a better place. Dialogue, if done skillfully, can be a powerful means to deepen our understanding of others, seeing more deeply why people believe what they believe and do what they do–thus better allowing us to foster more compassion for others, particularly those whose beliefs, words and actions we may initially have found difficult to understand and angering. The goal of challenging inequalities in power–whether in classroom discussions or by protesting in the streets–is to create a world based on more compassionate principles, where people treat each other with more fairness and respect. Dialogue and social justice activism are both skillful means to these ends. While there is a certain amount of tension between two in practice, I think rather than abandoning one for the other, we should embrace both, finding ways to make them complementary.

Matt Williams
Truly Holding Peace
Lakeside Buddha Sangha
Chicago IL, USA

Who? Me? Change the World?

And so a question:

Am I a human manifestation who is conscious

or,

consciousness manifested as a human?

Me thinks the later.

From a single consciousness we humans spring,
and all are one.

With this awakening
I see that the suffering of one is the suffering of many
and that the joy of another is also my joy.

This insight suggests
a slight twist to the Golden Rule may be in order:
“As I treat others, I also treat myself.”

As I practice loving kindness, compassion and joy
the same will be manifest in others
and be returned to me many times over.

Our practice changes our consciousness
AND the consciousness of our world.
Maybe changing the world really isn’t so complicated.

Who? Me? Change the World?

Me thinks so……

I am Kabe Woods, True Field of Orchids (Chân Lan Điền) , the Co-Founder and Facilitator of the Mindfulness Practice Center of Fort Walton Beach, Florida.

Serving The Ill And Dying

I began working as a healthcare chaplain in 2005, the same year I was ordained in the Order of Interbeing.  For those unfamiliar with the role, healthcare chaplains help patients cope with their changing lives using the patient’s own language of meaning, whether that language is religious, scientific, philosophical or based upon their life experiences.  This requires the chaplain to listen with compassion and respond appropriately, without proselytizing the chaplain’s own beliefs.  My chaplaincy and OI practices have grown and supported each other over the years and I’d like to share some insights into how they work together to help me serve the ill and dying. 

Precepts

Thay’s poetic and deep rendering of the 14 Mindfulness Trainings have been a constant source of inspiration, support, and correction for my chaplaincy practice.  I’ve recited the precepts every other week since becoming an aspirant, and with each recitation the precepts reveal something new, guiding me back when I’ve strayed or reminding me that, contrary to self-judgements, I’m doing ok. 

While all the precepts have at one point or another enlivened my chaplaincy, I’d like to mention a few that come up again and again.  Continue reading “Serving The Ill And Dying”

Bumper Sticker Practice

Earlier this year I came up with a new mindfulness practice: bumper stickers! OK, let me explain. I like finding new and inventive ways to cultivate daily mindfulness. Being mindful means being mindful of something. And that something can be anything! Anything that allows us the opportunity to practice getting in touch and connecting with the present moment can be considered a practice of mindfulness. And it’s fun to find new ways in which to practice.

So in January, this idea of bumper sticker mindfulness came to me. For each month in 2016 I would practice noticing bumper stickers. In order to put a little extra weight on this new mindfulness practice, to help encourage me to do it, I would also write down the bumper stickers that caught my eye as being especially odd, funny or interesting. I then also resolved to write a blog post about it further into the year. And since I’ve recorded so many already I thought I’d stretch this bumper sticker practice into two blog posts, one now and one at the end of the year. As an FYI, my bumper sticker rules included only writing down bumper stickers I saw in action, meaning displayed on cars – so bumper stickers I saw for sale in a store didn’t count. I have a nice little notebook and an easily accessible pen in my car that I scribbled down all of the ones I saw, that I deemed worth noting. Here they are, in order of date seen:

Continue reading “Bumper Sticker Practice”

A Road Back

A Road Back for Lapsed Order of Interbeing
Core Community Lay Members Who Wish to Renew

An offering from the North American Dharma Teachers Sangha

From time to time, Order of Interbeing (OI) Core Community members may fall away from their practice as brothers and sisters in the OI family. Some of these friends retain or rediscover their heart’s connection to the Order of Interbeing core community and practice, but finding a way back into practice with the OI community may be challenging for the practitioner and confusing for the local Sangha that was “left behind.” The Order of Interbeing Charter encourages OI members to develop appropriateness and skillful means, leading “to a capacity to be creative and to reconcile.” The North American Dharma Teachers Sangha offers this “road back” as a means to support local Sanghas and lapsed core community members who wish to renew their commitment to Plum Village practice and the OI core community. We hope it will help lapsed OI core community members reconcile with and rejoin their local Sanghas, reconnect with the Fourteen Mindfulness Trainings and the OI core community, and renew their commitment to practicing as an Order of Interbeing core community member.

Read the Complete Document 

Forty Tenets of Plum Village

Introduction

The Forty Tenets were formulated and taught by Thầy in Plum Village during the Spring Retreat 2006, the Autumn Retreat 2006 and the Winter Retreats 2006, 2007. They serve as the foundation for the Plum Village teachings and practices and for our Mindfulness Trainings, whether they are the Five of the laity, the Ten of the novitiate, the Fourteen of the Order, or the several hundred of the monastics.

In the early 90’s, Thầy taught many courses about the history of Buddhist thought in a number of winter retreats, including “The Living Tradition of Meditation Practice,” “The Sutras of the Southern Transmission,” “The Sutras of the Northern Transmission” and in 2005, “The Wheel of the Different Schools Commentary” which discusses the different tenets held by the more than twenty early different Buddhist schools. These teachings give us an overview of the history of Buddhist thought.

These tenets are Thầy’s attempt to identify and define the teachings that we maintain, learn and transmit in Plum Village and capture our relationship to the various paths in the history of Buddhism. They are the result of Thầy and the Plum Village community’s study and practice of Buddhist teachings and methods, and deep looking into the evolution of the various Buddhist schools and their teachings.

Thầy has shared many times that as Buddhist practitioners we should, from time to time, return and bathe in the waters of source Buddhism. In Plum Village, we have “a deep desire to understand the original meaning of the Buddha, the teacher who began this lineage, and also a desire to study and practice so that, while being faithful to the original teachings, we can also respond to the needs of our times for spiritual practice and transformation. The different schools of Buddhism from the time of 140 years after the Buddha entered nirvana until the beginning of the Mahāyāna did just that and of course, our community should do the same.”

Thầy also reminds us: “It is possible that our way of looking today will change in order to adapt to a deeper and more relevant way of looking tomorrow. In being faithful to the open and undogmatic stance of Buddhism, Plum Village always holds the door wide open for change so never has a rigid and dogmatic attitude that only its way of seeing things is right. This way of looking is practiced regularly in order to remove the obstacle of knowledge (jñeyāvarana), and always to have the opportunity to go forward.”

“In this way Buddhism changes, adapts and progresses in the same way as science does in order to serve humankind more effectively all the time. We have too long been influenced by the maxim: “Repetition rather than creativity.” This attitude belongs to the pious religious believer more than it does to the scholar. We should have the courage to review what we have learnt in the light of our practice and reflection.”

During this 21 Day Retreat 2016, we will have a chance to reexamine some of the theses that Thầy has put forward; explore how they can inform our practice and how they can be a foundation for applying the Trainings of the Order of Interbeing as we actively engage with society. As practitioners, we invite you to read these theses of Plum Village with a critical, scientific attitude that is based on your own experience of the practice.

With love and trust,
Vulture Peak Team
May 20, 2016

The Forty Tenets

  1. Space is not an unconditioned dharma. It manifests together with time, matter and consciousness.
  2. In the historical dimension, every dharma is a conditioned dharma. In the ultimate dimension, every dharma is an unconditioned dharma.
  3. Nirvāṇa is the absence of ignorance (Avidyā) and the afflictions (kleśāh), but not the absence of the aggregates (skandhāh), sense spheres (āyatanāni) and domains of existence (dhātuh)
  4. Nirvāṇa is nirvāṇa. There does not need to be a nirvana with residue (sopādiśeṣa) or without residue (anupādiśeṣa).
  5. It is possible to touch Nirvāṇa in the present moment.
  6. Nirvāṇa is not a phenomenon, but the true nature of all phenomena.
  7. Not born means nirvāṇa and it is awakening to the truth of the deathless, the no-coming and no-going, the not the same and not different, the not being and not non-being.
  8. The concentrations on empitness, signlessness and aimlessness help us to touch Nirvāṇa and the Unconditioned.
  9. The Three Dharma Seals are: impermanence, non-self and Nirvāṇa. We can uphold Four Dharma Seals or Five Dharma Seals with one condition: that they include Nirvāṇa.
  10. The basic concentrations (samādhi) are the concentrations on impermanence, no-self, and Nirvāṇa.
  11. Mindfulness, concentration and insight are the essential practices that give rise to liberation.
  12. Precepts are mindfulness. (Śīla is smṛti). Precepts and mindful manners are concrete expressions of mindfulness.
  13. Right diligence is mindfulness trainings (morality, Śīla) and therefore is also mindfulness.
  14. Mindfulness, concentration and insight include each other. All three have the capacity to bring joy, happiness and liberation.
  15. The awareness of suffering helps us recognize the existing conditions of happiness and also helps prevent the creation of wrong actions and the planting of negative seeds that will bring about suffering.
  16. The Four Noble Truths are all conditioned. The Four Noble Truths are all unconditioned.
  17. The Third Noble Truth can be called the truth of happiness.
  18. Free will is possible thanks to the Three Trainings.
  19. You should learn to see the Second Noble Truth as the path of the eight wrong practices. The deep cause of ill-being is not just desire.
  20. A real Arahat is also a Bodhisattva and a real Bodhisattva is also an Arahat.
  21. As a human being you have the capacity to become a Buddha. As a Buddha you continue to be a human being. That is why numerous Buddhas are possible.
  22. The Buddha has many bodies: the body of a living being, the Dharmabody, the body outside of the body, the Sanghabody, the continuation body, the Dharma-realm body, and the true nature of the Dharma-realm body. Since human beings can become Buddha they also have all these bodies.
  23. We can talk of a person as a continuous and ever-changing stream of five aggregates. This stream is always flowing. It is in connection with, receives from and contributes to other streams of phenomena. We cannot speak of a person as an unchanging and permanent separate self.
  24. We can only understand the real teaching of rebirth (samsāra) in the light of impermanence, no-self and interbeing.
  25. Happiness and suffering inter-are. Affliction and enlightenment are both of an organic nature.
  26. The Sangha body, the Buddha body and the Dharma body inter-are. In a true Sangha you can find the true Buddha and the true Dharma.
  27. Since the afflictions (kleśāh) and the awakening (Bodhi) are of an organic nature, the practice needs to be constant in order for transformation to continue and for regression not to take place. Samsāra is a continuation and the beautiful and wholesome things need to be continued for as long as possible, while the not beautiful and unwholesome need to be transformed so that they do not continue. The compost has to be used to nourish the flowers.
  28. Liberation from samsāra does not mean putting an end to the personal self (pudgala), because that person is not a real entity anyway, nor does it mean putting an end to the precepts’ body and the spiritual life.
  29. Birth and death are only manifestation or non-manifestation. Both manifestor and manifested occur at the same time, the manifestation of one thing is the non-manifestation of something else.
  30. A dharma is not a thing, an entity, but a process, an event and above all an object of mind.
  31. Retribution consists of both body-mind and environment, and is both individual and collective. This land is the Saha land for living beings but Pure Land for Buddhas and Bodhisattvas.
  32. There is no self but still there is the cycle of birth and death, there is inter-continuation and the nature of all inter-continuation is interbeing.
  33. Each generation of Buddhist practitioners has to resist the human tendency and need on the one hand to make the Buddha divine and on the other hand to try to find a principle to take the place of a self.
  34. Store consciousness has the capacity of learning, storing, protecting, responding, nourishing, healing and continuing. Its function is to establish a database and unconscious habits of responding to situations, which makes it possible for a human being to act on ‘auto-pilot’.
  35. Manas has the tendency to seek for security and long lasting pleasure. It is ignorant of the law of moderation, the danger of pleasure seeking and the goodness of suffering. It does not see the necessity for insight into impermanence, non-self, inter-being, compassion and communication.
  36. With the practice of mindfulness, concentration and insight, mind consciousness can learn and download its insights to Store consciousness and leave Store consciousness to do the work of maturation and then manifest the seeds of wisdom that are already innate in Store consciousness.
  37. The basic practice of Source Buddhism is the Four Domains of Mindfulness which has the function to recognize and transform the habit energies and fully realize the Seven Factors of Enlightenment and the Noble Eightfold Path.  The Mahāyāna practice of meditation including the Zen of the patriarchs needs from time to time to go back to take a bath in Source Buddhism in order not to lose the essential Teachings of Buddhadharma.
  38. The reality of the Pure Land or Nirvāna transcends both space and time. The reality of everything else is exactly the same.
  39. Conditions, feelings, skandhas, āyatanas, dhātus, vijñāna, etc. are different ways of presenting the teachings. These different ways of presenting the teachings are not in opposition to each other.
  40. The teachings on impermanence, non-self, interdependence, emptiness, signlessness, aimlessness, mindfulness, concentration, insight, etc. constitute the heart of the Buddhist wisdom. They can go together with the spirit of science, they can be used in dialogue with science and offer suggestions and be a support for scientific research. Modern science should try to overcome the tendency of double grasping and scientists should train themselves to develop their capacity for intuition.

Orlando and Beyond

Dear sangha, 
We are connecting with you at this time in order to encourage and support ways of practicing that can lead to personal and collective healing and transformation related to what is going on in the world. We wish to find ways we can be of support to each other as a community in responding to current events, to create loving connection rather than more trauma and fomenting fear.

The T​ransformation and Healing Committee of the Dharma Teacher Care Taking Council of North America would appreciate your sharing with the community your and your Sanghas response to recent events in Orlando. In particular, which teachings and practices are you using right now or did you use recently in your sangha in light of this event? For example we have heard that one sangha read from ​Thay’s book Calming the Fearful Mind – a Zen Repsonse to Terrorism.  Another sangha read out the names of the people who died at Orlando, sounding the bell after each name. Another sangha lit fifty candles. 

The ​Transformation and Healing Committee is charged with exploring and supporting engaged practice in the dharma teacher and OI communities. Orlando is a painful recent episode of violence. There have been many before, and given the conditions in the world now, there will be more. We can be more intentional about preparing ourselves to engage these kinds of situations by becoming more practiced in our Sanghas in processing current events, sharing the resources we use, learning skillful means from each other, and being a more active resource for the larger community. This message is going to Dharma Teachers Sangha and Order of Interbeing list with a request to forward to regional lists of Sanghas. We will also post on the OI website. 

With deep gratitude and joy in our practice together for collective awakening,

Signed.

John Bell
Richard Brady
Lyn Fine
Jack Lawlor
Kenley Neufeld
Leslie Rawls
Jo-ann Rosen

North American Ordination (2015 Only)

Ordination Ceremony

Dear Dharma Teachers, Dear Order Members, Dear Aspirants,

In 2015 there will be three opportunities for aspirants from North America to be ordained into the Order of Interbeing. In order to facilitate the process, the Care-taking Council of the Dharma Teachers Sangha of North America (including both monastics and lay) have clarified the requirements, criteria, and procedures for North American students of Thich Nhat Hanh.

The Fourteen Mindfulness Trainings offer clear guidance for living simply, compassionately, and joyfully in our modern world. They are a concrete embodiment of the teachings of the Buddha and the Bodhisattva ideal. Anyone who wishes can live his or her life in accord with these fourteen trainings.

To formally join the Order of Interbeing means to publicly commit oneself to studying, practicing, and observing the trainings and, also, to participating actively in a community which practices mindfulness in the Plum Village tradition of Thich Nhat Hanh. Continue reading “North American Ordination (2015 Only)”